Preheat oven to 425°F.
Bring water and rice to a boil in a small saucepan over high heat. Reduce heat to low, cover and cook until tender, about 40 minutes. Fluff the rice and immediately stir in pickled ginger liquid and 1/8 teaspoon salt.
Meanwhile, season salmon with the remaining 1/8 teaspoon salt and pepper and place in a 9-by-13-inch baking dish. Cover with foil and bake for 18 minutes. Uncover and bake until the fish flakes easily with a fork, 5 to 10 minutes more, depending on thickness.
Cook edamame in the microwave according to package instructions.
Mix mayonnaise and chile-garlic sauce in a small bowl.
Serve the salmon with the rice, edamame, mayonnaise mixture, nori and avocado. Garnish with scallions, pickled ginger and sesame seeds, if desired.