Whisk all-purpose flour, whole-wheat flour, baking powder, baking soda and salt together in a medium bowl. Beat sugar and butter in the bowl of a stand mixer fitted with a paddle attachment on medium speed until creamed, about 90 seconds. Add egg, lemon zest and lemon juice; beat on medium speed until combined, about 1 minute, scraping down the sides of the bowl as needed. With the mixer running on low speed, gradually add the flour mixture, beating until combined, about 1 minute. Cover and refrigerate until slightly firmer, about 30 minutes.