This creamy corn soup has underlying earthiness from the hominy and heat from the jalapeños. Fresh corn adds sweetness, which works well with the salty cotija cheese and other fresh and tangy garnishes.
Heat oil in a large Dutch oven or heavy stockpot over medium-high heat. Add corn; cook, stirring often, until softened, about 6 minutes. Transfer 1/2 cup of the corn to a small bowl; set aside. Add onion, jalapeño, garlic and salt to the pot; cook, stirring often, until the onion is translucent and the jalapeño is softened, about 5 minutes.
Add hominy and broth; bring to a boil over high heat; reduce heat to medium-low and simmer, undisturbed, until the flavors have melded, about 15 minutes.
Pour the soup into a blender. Secure the lid on the blender and remove the center piece of the lid to allow steam to escape. Place a clean towel over the opening. Process until smooth, about 1 minute. (Use caution when blending hot liquids.) Return the mixture to the pot. Stir in lime juice and sugar.
Divide the soup among 6 bowls and top with the reserved corn, yogurt, cilantro, cotija and chile powder.