For a quick weeknight supper, use canned black beans and omit Steps 1 and 2.
Soak beans in cold water overnight. (Alternatively, put beans in a large pot with enough water to cover by 2 inches. Bring to a boil and cook for 2 minutes. Remove from heat, cover and let stand for 1 hour.)
Drain and rinse beans. Place in a soup pot or Dutch oven. Add 4 cups water, garlic, oregano and bay leaf. Bring to a boil. Reduce heat to low, cover and simmer until beans are tender, about 2 hours. Drain and return to the pot.
Heat oil in a large skillet over medium heat. Add onion and bell pepper; cook, stirring, until softened, about 5 minutes. Add cumin and jalapeno; cook, stirring, for 1 minute more. Stir onion mixture and vinegar into beans. Season with salt and pepper to taste.
Meanwhile bring remaining 4 cups water and 1 teaspoon salt to a boil in a medium saucepan. Add rice, cover and reduce heat to low. Simmer until rice is tender and liquid is absorbed, 15 to 20 minutes.
Serve beans over rice, with lime wedges on the side.
Make Ahead Tip: Prepare through Step 3. Cover and refrigerate for up to 3 days. Reheat before serving.
5 1/2 starch, 1/2 vegetable, 2 lean meat