These 8 Things Could Make You More Likely to Develop Prediabetes, According to a Dietitian
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Prediabetes, a precursor to type 2 diabetes, is a condition that occurs when your blood sugar levels are higher than typical levels. The number of people with the condition is rising across the country, which is concerning as prediabetes can increase your risk of developing type 2 diabetes and heart disease and experiencing other complications.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 86 million Americans now have prediabetes. That's 1 in 3 adults. Of those 86 million, 9 out of 10 don't know they have it, and it's predicted that by 2030, 470 million people around the world will have this condition.
Those staggering statistics might have you asking some questions: Do I already have prediabetes? How do I know if I'm at risk? If you have a close family member living with diabetes, you may be curious about how likely you are to develop it. Are there warning signs or indications that can tell you your blood sugar is higher than it should be? Should you start checking your own blood sugar levels alongside your relative? Because diabetes can run in families, it's natural to be curious about whether you're at risk and how it might develop.
Fortunately, with sufficient diet and lifestyle changes, diabetes can be delayed and complications can be prevented. Plus, not all individuals who develop prediabetes will proceed to develop full-blown diabetes. Read on to learn more about prediabetes, its symptoms, the factors that may increase your chance of developing it and what you can do to help prevent it.
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The 8 Risk Factors for Prediabetes
You might be at more risk than others if:
- You are overweight.
- You are 45 years of age or older.
- Your parent or sibling has type 2 diabetes.
- You are physically active fewer than 3 times per week.
- You ever gave birth to a baby that weighed more than 9 pounds.
- You ever had diabetes while pregnant (gestational diabetes).
- You have a history of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)
- African Americans, Hispanic/Latino Americans, American Indians, Pacific Islanders and some Asian Americans are at particularly high risk for type 2 diabetes.
If you have one or more of these risk factors, talk to your doctor about your risks, and ask if you should be tested for prediabetes.
What Is Prediabetes? Breaking Down the Basics
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Prediabetes, also known as "impaired fasting glucose" or "glucose intolerance," occurs when blood sugar levels are slightly higher than normal, but not as high as they are with diabetes. Blood sugar levels increase when you consume food, mainly carbohydrates. Insulin, which is secreted by your pancreas, is the primary hormone that processes the sugar in your blood and helps control blood sugar levels. In people with prediabetes and diabetes, one of two things happens—either your pancreas does not make enough insulin, or your cells do not respond to insulin that the pancreas produces.
When your body does not respond to the insulin and cannot process the sugar in the bloodstream, you develop a condition known as "insulin resistance." This causes a cascade of events: To process the sugar in the blood, your body makes extra insulin. As time progresses and no lifestyle changes are made, insulin resistance worsens. The body cannot compensate for the high sugar levels in your blood, and full-blown diabetes sets in.
To be diagnosed as having prediabetes, your fasting blood sugar levels must be between 100 and 125 mg/dl (milligrams/deciliter). Hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c) is also an indicator of blood sugar patterns, and a level between 5.7% and 6.4% is indicative of prediabetes.
Prediabetes is a "silent" disease. It usually has no symptoms. You might feel normal while the disease is progressing, and this can go on for several years.
Annual physicals can help you spot unusually high blood sugar levels. Most health care providers check blood glucose numbers at a regular appointment. If your numbers show an unusual pattern, your doctor may request blood tests to check for prediabetes.
4 Steps to Stop Prediabetes
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If you are diagnosed with prediabetes, following these steps can help prevent progression to diabetes:
1. Lose weight if you are overweight
If you are overweight, losing a modest amount of weight can reduce your risk of developing diabetes. Even losing 7% of your body weight can lower your risk for type 2 diabetes by 58%. For someone who weighs 200 pounds, this would be a 14-pound weight loss. But remember, healthy and lasting weight loss is 1 to 2 pounds per week.
2. Move more
Exercise regularly. Thirty minutes of physical activity five times a week can lower your risk. Pick an activity—dancing, swimming, running—that you enjoy, then get moving. And remember that any and all movement counts. Take the stairs instead of the elevator and stand up from your desk each hour. These little bits of movement can add up over the course of the day.
3. Eat a balanced diet
Making healthy food choices and developing eating patterns that are beneficial for your health can go a long way in reducing your risk of diabetes. The Mediterranean diet, which is rich in whole grains, fruits, vegetables and fish, has shown potential for preventing diabetes. A review of the literature concluded that greater adherence to the Mediterranean diet is linked to a 19% reduction in the risk of diabetes.
4. Invest in a glucose monitor
A glucose monitor can be a helpful tool to check your blood sugar levels at home. If you have prediabetes, keeping an eye on your blood sugar levels can help you make the necessary changes in your diet and also act as a motivator.
These changes in your lifestyle can make a huge difference and cut your risk of developing diabetes. Drugs like metformin are successful in reducing diabetes risk, but talk to your doctor to know if you need them. Lifestyle modifications are more effective than drugs when it comes to reducing prediabetes symptoms, lowing blood sugar levels and preventing the condition from progressing to type 2 diabetes.