Traditional Vietnamese beef pho involves simmering whole herbs and aromatics for hours to achieve a rich, clear broth with a deep flavor; this shortcut version simmers ground spices for just 15 minutes, yet still achieves a savory, rich broth.
Heat oil in a large pot over medium heat. Add garlic, ginger, pepper, cinnamon, and cloves; cook for 1 minute. Stir in broth and fish sauce; bring to a boil over high heat. Reduce heat to medium and simmer, partially covered, for 15 minutes.
Meanwhile, cook noodles according to package directions. Drain and divide among 4 bowls.
Add snap peas, onion, and beef to the broth. Simmer until the beef is just cooked through, about 1 minute; remove from heat.
Ladle the soup over the noodles. Divide bean sprouts, scallions, basil, and chiles among the bowls. Serve with lime wedges.