What explains the hearty benefits? Researchers suggest that the strong antioxidant flavonoid compounds found in apples—quercetin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin, kaempferol and other polysyllabic wonders—play a key role by preventing LDL cholesterol from oxidizing and triggering a series of events that result in the buildup of plaque in arteries, as well as inhibiting inflammation. “But antioxidants are just one piece of the whole puzzle,” notes Cornell University food scientist and apple expert Rui Hai Liu, Ph.D. Apples are also rich in pectin, a form of soluble fiber known to help lower cholesterol, and they provide a decent amount of vitamin C, another antioxidant.
Liu, whose own pioneering work has identified cancer-fighting elements in extracts of whole apples, believes that we’re only beginning to understand how the various components of apples “work together additively and synergistically to provide health benefits.” David Jacobs, Ph.D., a University of Minnesota researcher involved in the Iowa Women’s Health Study, concurs. “There are probably thousands of compounds in apples that we haven’t yet identified and maybe won’t identify for a long time,” he muses, “but we really don’t need to know all that, because we can eat whole apples.”